SQL Interview Questions
What is RDBMS?
Relational Data Base Management Systems (RDBMS) are database management systems that maintain
data records and indices in tables. Relationships may be created and maintained across and among the
data and tables. In a relational database, relationships between data items are expressed by means of
tables. Interdependencies among these tables are expressed by data values rather than by pointers.
This allows a high degree of data independence. An RDBMS has the capability to recombine the data
items from different files, providing powerful tools for data usage.
What is normalization?
Database normalization is a data design and organization process applied to data structures based on
rules that help build relational databases. In relational database design, the process of organizing data
to minimize redundancy. Normalization usually involves dividing a database into two or more tables and
defining relationships between the tables. The objective is to isolate data so that additions, deletions,
and modifications of a field can be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the
database via the defined relationships.
What are different normalization forms?
1NF: Eliminate Repeating Groups
Make a separate table for each set of related attributes, and give each table a primary key. Each field
contains at most one value from its attribute domain.
2NF: Eliminate Redundant Data
If an attribute depends on only part of a multi-valued key, remove it to a separate table.
3NF: Eliminate Columns Not Dependent On Key
If attributes do not contribute to a description of the key, remove them to a separate table. All
attributes must be directly dependent on the primary key
BCNF: Boyce-Codd Normal Form
If there are non-trivial dependencies between candidate key attributes, separate them out into distinct
4NF: Isolate Independent Multiple Relationships
No table may contain two or more 1:n or n:m relationships that are not directly related.
5NF: Isolate Semantically Related Multiple Relationships
There may be practical constrains on information that justify separating logically related many-to-many
ONF: Optimal Normal Form
A model limited to only simple (elemental) facts, as expressed in Object Role Model notation.
DKNF: Domain-Key Normal Form
A model free from all modification anomalies.
Remember, these normalization guidelines are cumulative. For a database to be in 3NF, it must first
fulfill all the criteria of a 2NF and 1NF database.
What is Stored Procedure?
A stored procedure is a named group of SQL statements that have been previously created and stored
in the server database. Stored procedures accept input parameters so that a single procedure can be
used over the network by several clients using different input data. And when the procedure is
modified, all clients automatically get the new version. Stored procedures reduce network traffic and
improve performance. Stored procedures can be used to help ensure the integrity of the database.
e.g. sp_helpdb, sp_renamedb, sp_depends etc.
What is Trigger?
A trigger is a SQL procedure that initiates an action when an event (INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE)
occurs. Triggers are stored in and managed by the DBMS.Triggers are used to maintain the referential
the DBMS automatically fires the trigger as a result of a data modification to the associated table.
Triggers can be viewed as similar to stored procedures in that both consist of procedural logic that is
stored at the database level. Stored procedures, however, are not event-drive and are not attached to a
specific table as triggers are. Stored procedures are explicitly executed by invoking a CALL to the
procedure while triggers are implicitly executed. In addition, triggers can also execute stored
Nested Trigger: A trigger can also contain INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE logic within itself, so when the trigger is fired because of data modification it can also cause another data modification, thereby firing
another trigger. A trigger that contains data modification logic within itself is called a nested trigger.